Blog of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research

The 1970s and the Menstrual Dance: Naturally … a Girl

September 10th, 2015 by Saniya Lee Ghanoui

“Menstruation is just one routine step in a normal and natural cycle that is going on continuously in the body,” says the female narrator of the 1946 film by Walt Disney called The Story of Menstruation. “There’s nothing strange nor mysterious about menstruation. All life is built on cycles, and the menstrual cycle is one normal and natural part of nature’s eternal plan for passing on the gift of life.” That film is believed to be the first in the United States to discuss openly the female body and the process of menstruation, including the first film to use the word vagina. In this blog I will focus on one particular menstrual education film, Naturally … a Girl, to explore how it differed from previous other prominent films.

Naturally … a Girl, released in 1973 and produced by the Personal Products Company (Modess—the same makers involved in Molly Grows Up), presents a playful, colorful, and a new technique not seen in menstrual education films before: the interview.  While an authority figure is present throughout the thirteen minute film, she only performs as a guide to keep structure in the film and provide the basic biological information. It is the numerous interviews—with racially diverse girls from pre-period to those menstruating for over six years—that execute the reliability factor so important in advertising.

Throughout the film young girls are shown dancing in brightly-colored tights and leotards against a black screen. Sometimes there is a single girl dancing and other times there is a group of young women, and in all instances the dancing creates a sense of voyeurism that the girls are there to perform for the audience’s eye—whether they know the audience is watching or not is never fully revealed. The girls are all said to be twelve years old and are in varying stages of physical development. Some still possess the more square shape of a young child while others have fuller breasts and wider hips. The camera is above the girls and looks down as they lie on the black background, thus giving the viewer a shot of the girls’ entire bodies. The allure of this shot is created through a sense of scopophilic eroticism at the girls as the audience voyeuristically gazes at them moving their bodies in a tight space and close to each other.

As with the menstrual education films before it, Naturally … a Girl has an omnipresent authority figure who works as a narrator and makes an appearance at the end of the film noting how lucky she feels to be a woman. Employing montages the film narrativized the notion that all girls are different yet experience the same problems and concerns growing up. Doing so deletes the need to break the fourth wall, as with Molly Grows Up and As Boys Grow, since the numerous faces and distinctive interviews form a feeling of relatability by difference. While this creates a viewer interest it does not necessarily promote any involvement on the part of the audience. To solve this the film utilizes questions throughout; basically the film functions as a pop quiz for the audience members by asking them questions, often with multiple choice answers, and a brief moment to answer.

Overall, though, the film better encapsulates women as multifaceted beings than its predecessors. By the end of the film the narrator is introduced as a woman who, as she says, used to dream of acting and is now an actress. She reassures the audience that being is better than dreaming and what follows is a montage of working women: nurses, teachers, police officers, flight attendants, lineworkers, and mothers. The last line of the film sums up the film’s overall message from a young girl (still missing teeth) who concludes that being a woman “is better than being a boy.”

Saniya Lee Ghanoui is a PhD student in media history at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her dissertation looks at the history of sex education films in the United States and Sweden.

Ms. July – Menstruation Pin-Up

July 1st, 2015 by Jen Lewis

Guest Post by Jen Lewis

Beauty in Blood Presents
Ms. July: Truth & Perception
Year: 2015
Menstrual Designer: Jen Lewis
Photographer: Rob Lewis

Menstrual contagion, men and menstruation, and other menstrual explorations

May 29th, 2015 by Laura Wershler

Menstrual musings on period cravings, talking about periods, contagious periods,  communicating about periods, and what men know about periods will be presented in two concurrent sessions at the 21st Biennial Conference of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research at The Center for Women’s Health and Human Rights, June 4-6, 2015, Suffolk University, Boston


Examining Menstruation Friday, June 5th:

Priming Menstruation Schema Moderates Relationship between Menstrual Attitudes and Chocolate Craving
Joseph Wister & Margaret L. Stubbs, Chatham University

Women who had menstruation schemas primed had significant positive correlations between negative menstrual attitudes and measures of increased craving and eating, confirming existing stereotypes. For women in the no-prime condition, these correlations were not significant or were in a direction that opposed the stereotypes.

Perceptions of Women who Speak Openly about Menstruation
Jessica Barnack-Tavlaris, The College of New Jersey

The purpose is to examine people’s perceptions of a woman who speaks openly about menstruation. We will test whether a woman will be judged more negatively when she speaks openly about menstruation (e.g., less competent, less likeable, less attractive) than when she does not speak openly about menstruation.

Menstruation as contagion? Women’s subjective beliefs about menstrual synchrony
Breanne Fahs, Arizona State University 

This paper utilized qualitative data from a diverse 2014 community sample of women to examine their beliefs about menstrual synchrony (women’s menstrual cycles syncing up). Results revealed an overwhelming endorsement of menstrual synchrony, belief in it as magical or “animal-like,” and targeted a wide range of potential women co-menstruators. (Image supplied by Breanne Fahs)

Examining Knowledge, Cognitive Involvement, and Behavioral Involvement with Menstrual Practices: Implications on Health Education and Communication Campaigns
Arpan Yagnik & Srinivas Melkote, Bowling Green State University

There is a scarcity of baseline research on menstruation and menstrual hygiene that can guide health communication intervention campaigns. The outcomes of this study on Indian women and men will provide practitioners, health communication managers and researchers scientifically accurate knowledge about understudied facets of menstruation (cognitive/behavioral involvement, and knowledge).


Figure 4 from Katherine Fishman’s Master’s Thesis: Putting men back in the menstrual cycle.

Men and Menstruation Saturday, June 6th:

Masculinity & Menstruation: An Exploration of a Complex Relationship
Kate Richmond, Muhlenberg College & Mindy Erchull, University of Mary Washington 

This exploratory study aimed to learn more about men’s knowledge and attitudes about menstruation. Men completed measures assessing their endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, their attitudes and knowledge related to menstruation, their general levels of comfort talking about menstruation, and their reports of how they learned about menstruation.

She Got Her Period: Men’s knowledge and perspectives on menstruation
Ishwari Rajak, Minnesota State University

Myths, taboos, and shame associated with menstruation limit conversations about it. It is important for men to engage in conversation to understand at a deeper level why society silences conversation about menstruation. This research aims to explore men’s knowledge and perspectives on menstruation.

Putting men back in the menstrual cycle: A qualitative analysis of men’s perceptions of menstruation

Kate Fishman, Southern Illinois University 

This paper will explore qualitative findings of men’s perceptions of menstruation and the implications of negative attitudes, specifically as they relate to women’s bodily experiences and expressions of emotion. Participants’ creative artworks depicting their perceptions of menstruation will be presented, and future directions related to educational goals will be addressed.


Media Release and Registration for the SMCR Boston Conference on Menstrual Health and Reproductive Justice: Human Rights Across the Lifespan.

Celebrate Menstrual Hygiene Day!

May 21st, 2015 by David Linton

Sustainable Cycles: Cross Country Activism and Menstrual Health Education on Bicycles

April 24th, 2015 by Laura Wershler

Presenters Sarah Wilson, Ruby Gertz, Rosie Sheb’a, Rachel Horn, Olive Mugalian and Rachel Saudek will present the workshop Sustainable Cycles: Cross Country Activism and Education on Bicycles, at the 21st Biennial Conference of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research at The Center for Women’s Health and Human Rights, June 4-6, 2015, Suffolk University Boston, USA.

Read more about their journey in Biking 2000 Miles to Talk Period published by Jamaica Plain News.

In March of 2015 seven women from three different countries are biking across America for one reason: because they are passionately period positive. The purpose of Sustainable Cycles is to catalyze a grassroots, person-to-person revolution away from single-use, disposable menstrual products to reusable sustainable options. We want as many women to make the switch as possible and for users to become advocates—“spokeswomen” – in their communities. We see our work as a feminist, social and environmental justice project.

Sustainable Cycles was started in 2011 by Sarah Konner and Toni Craige, who biked down the West Coast meeting with groups of women to discuss the cultural taboos of menstruation and pass around a show-and-tell kit of alternatives to single-use pads and tampons. The project has since gained momentum, making the 2015 tour the third and largest trip. This year the trip will be taking three simultaneous routes: through middle America via San Francisco, Southern America via San Diego and from Florida up the Eastern Coast. The project has been supported by multiple re-usable companies including Diva Cup, Ruby Cup, Party in My Pants, Glad Rags, Lunette and My Own Cup.

As the culmination of our 2015 tour, it is a privilege to present our travels with other menstrual enthusiasts at the 2015 SMCR conference. We will be presenting our project in three parts. Firstly, reminding and educating about the presence and importance of alternative menstrual products. We will then be sharing the details, triumphs, and difficulties of holding these workshops with women across America. This will include pictures from our journey, a report of current attitudes about menstruation and alternative products and our personal growth during our journey. Lastly, we will be discussing ways that women can access their own inner activist and combine their passions to make a difference in the world. We are thrilled to be sharing our passion and products with women across America and to share our story at the upcoming conference.

Follow Sustainable Cycles on Twitter @bikeperiod and on Facebook 

Media Release for the 21st Biennial Conference of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research at The Center for Women’s Health and Human Rights, June 4-6, 2015, Suffolk University Boston, USA

Register here for the Boston Conference.

Ms. March—Menstruation Pin-Up

March 20th, 2015 by Saniya Lee Ghanoui

Guest Post by Jen Lewis

Beauty in Blood Presents
Ms. March: Bursting Through
Year: 2015
Menstrual Designer: Jen Lewis
Photographer: Rob Lewis

Bad Blood!

March 10th, 2015 by David Linton

The history of women being discriminated against for having a menstrual cycle is, unfortunately, long and varied one, going far back into antiquity as demonstrated by prohibitions spelled out in the biblical book of Leviticus. Sometimes the prejudices or fears underlying both formal and informal practices spring from misunderstandings of biological functions; sometimes they are simply vestiges of patriarchal systems designed to maintain male dominance; sometimes they are indications of cultural lag, behaviors kept alive despite the fact that the individuals really “know better” but are stuck in their traditions. Shirley Jackson’s famous short story, “The Lottery,” captures such a phenomenon brilliantly.

The bad news is that there are still a lot of cultural practices in place whose meaning or usefulness has long ago been found to be worthless. The good news is that every once in a while enough noise is made or enough light is shed on a bad idea that it is abandoned, even if reluctantly.

The recent story about how women job applicants have been asked intrusive and pointless questions about their menstrual cycles and how the interview questions were dropped from the protocol gives us cause to sigh in dismay that such things continue to happen but also gives us reason to smile with pleasure that public exposure brought about change.

Readers are encouraged to respond with posts citing other similar stories.

Ms. February—Menstruation Pin-Up

February 20th, 2015 by Saniya Lee Ghanoui

Guest Post by Jen Lewis

Beauty in Blood Presents:
Ms. February: Let It Flow #1
Menstrual Designer: Jen Lewis
Photographer: Rob Lewis

“Menstrual Hygiene” Explored: Capturing the the Wider Context

December 9th, 2014 by Chris Bobel

This summer, I bought a new camera. I needed it to snap pictures during a research trip to India where I explored diverse approaches to what’s called in the development sector, Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM). I chose a sleek, high tech device with a powerful, intuitive zoom.

Photo by author

In Bangalore, I captured the sweet intimacy of two schoolgirls as they watched the menstrual health animated video “Mythri” at a government school. In Tamil Nadu, I used my zoom for close shots of skilled women tailors sewing brightly colored cloth menstrual pads for the social business, Eco Femme.

Photo by author

In South Delhi, I used my zoom to preserve the mounds of cloth painstakingly repurposed as low cost menstrual pads at NGO Goonj.

But here’s the problem. These close up shots may please the eye, but they leave out the context that surrounds and shapes each photo’s subject. And what exists outside the frame is at least as important as what is inside. That’s hardly a revelation, I realize, but when it comes to doing Menstrual Hygiene Management work, in an effort to find solutions, the “big picture”—both literally and figuratively—sometimes gets obscured.

Photo by author

For example, when I snapped the picture of the mound of menstrual pads pictured here, I focused on a product, a simple product, that could truly improve the quality of someone’s life. But when I trained my attention on the product, what did I miss?

In short, a wider angle lens reveals the context of menstrual product access—a complicated web of many intersecting issues: infrastructural deficits (safe, secure, and clean latrines and sites for disposal), access to resources (like soap and water), gender norms, and menstrual restrictions rooted in culture or religion.

Imagine that one of brightly colored packages of menstrual pads ends up in the hands of a 15 year old girl. I will call her Madhavi.

Madhavi is delighted to have a dedicated set of her very own clean rags to absorb her flow.

Goonj worker with pads ready for distribution and sale
Photo by author

But does she have access to clean water and soap to wash them?

Does she have family support to dry her rags on the clothesline, in direct sunlight, even though her brothers, uncles, and neighbors will be able to see them?

Does she have a safe, secure place at school to change her rags?

Does she have someone to turn to when she has a question about her menstrual cycle?

These questions are important because they point to what gets in the way of effective and sustainable MHM. My own review of the emerging empirical literature on MHM revealed that the top three impediments to school girls’ positive and healthy menstrual experiences are 1) inadequate facilities 2) inadequate knowledge and 3) fear of disclosure, especially to boys. I want to focus on this last one for a moment by widening the frame a bit more.

Menstrual Hygiene Management is part of a complex and enduring project of loosening the social control of women’s bodies, of working to move embodiment, more generally, from object to subject status—something absolutely foundational to taking on a host of other urgent issues; from human trafficking to eating disorders to sexual assault.

As we know throughout the West, menstrual taboos do not disappear as we upgrade our menstrual care. Without the heavy lifting of menstrual normalization, any menstrual care practice will make a minimal impact.

Thus, menstrual activism must always incorporate an analysis of how gender norms maintain the menstrual status quo. And it must engage the potential of men and boys as allies, not enemies. That’s a tall order that cuts to the very core of gender socialization. But if we don’t take this on, no product in the world will be enough.

Anyone with a camera knows that framing a picture is a choice. Am I suggesting that we should never use the zoom, that we should forgo the rich and textured details possible when we tighten the shot? Of course not, as focus is crucial to our understanding. But when we do aim our figurative cameras and shoot, let’s not forget what lies outside the visual frame. Let’s not forget what else must change for the pad to be a truly sustainable solution.

With this in mind, I turn back to Madhavi and her new pads. Inevitably, even with them, one day soon, someone will know she is menstruating.

Will she be shamed? Will she be supported?

The answer lies in how we frame the picture.

This blog post appears on Girls Globe as part of a series of invited posts organized by Irise Interational.

Literary Menstruation

November 12th, 2014 by David Linton

Given their first-hand awareness of the role it has played in their own lives, it is not surprising that women writers (and researchers) have included references to the menstrual cycle in their books. Even so, social taboos have probably tended to keep the subject from appearing as often as it might have otherwise and literary menstrual references have only come to the surface in the mid-twentieth century. The women appearing in the fiction of Bronte, Eliot, Alcott, du Maurier, and the other major women writers of the 19th century seem to be lacking a menstrual cycle regardless of how otherwise thoroughly detailed their lives were depicted.

Men too have been menstrual-averse. The cycle played no part though later male authors, notably William Faulkner, did include specific menstrual details if only to capture a male chart in the lives of the women in the novels of Hardy, Conrad, James, Dickens, Lawrence or Hawthorne, to name a representative few. Men seem to be “in avoidance,” if not “in denial” about the cycle’s presence. Even male writers such as Updike and Roth for all their frank depictions of sexual behavior have treated menstruation gingerly, in the case of Roth using it in two novels to express characters’ kinkiness.

The more permissive climate of the past 60 or 70 years not only saw the rise of a new generation of women writers, but a greater openness to the inclusion of menstrual material in their stories. Toni Morrison, Joyce Carol Oates, Anne Patchett, and Margaret Atwood, to name a few of the most noteworthy, have built entire scenes or even complete plot lines around menstrual tropes.

This is a subject rich in possibilities for a wide variety of investigations in literary studies, women’s and gender studies, communication and media, sociology, psychology, and even religious studies. With the exception of Dana Medoro’s path breaking book, The Bleeding of America, the subject is virtually untouched. Readers are urged to dig into this treasure trove of material.

So, the purpose of this blog post is to invite suggestions of literary sources that are fertile ground for cycle commentary. Help build the menstrual canon with mention of “sightings” that have come to your attention.

Readers should note that statements published in re: Cycling are those of individual authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Society as a whole.